Publications

BOOKS

Porges SW, Coles MGH, eds. (1976).  Psychophysiology.  Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden,     Hutchinson & Ross.

Coles MGH, Donchin E, Porges SW, eds.  (1986).  Psychophysiology:  Systems, Processes & Applications. New York:  Guilford.

Carter CS, Ahnert L, Grossmann K, Hrdy SB, Lamb ME, Porges SW, Sachser N, eds. (2005) Attachment and Bonding: A New Synthesis. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Porges SW, Trejo BM, Martinez AC. (2005).  La Teoria Polivagal.  Mexico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Comision Nacional de los Derechos Humanos.

Porges SW (2010). Die Polyvagal-Theorie: Neurophysiologische Grundlagen der Therapie. Paderborn, Germany: Junfermann Verlag.

Porges SW. (2011). The Polyvagal Theory: Neurophysiological Foundations of Emotions, Attachment, Communication, and Self-Regulation. New York: Norton.

PATENTS

Method and Apparatus for Evaluating Rhythmic Oscillations in Aperiodic Physiological Response Systems.  Patent Number: 4,510,944. April 16, 1985.

Method and Apparatus for Evaluating Dynamic Middle Ear Muscle Activity (with GF Lewis). Provisional Patent Application number: 61/285,264.  December 10, 2009.

ARTICLES

Porges SW, Raskin DC. (1969). Respiratory and heart rate components of attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology 81:497-503.

Fitzgerald HE, Porges SW. (1970). Cardiovascular effects of paced respiration and selective attention.  Psychonomic Science 19:65-66.

Porges SW, Fitzgerald HE. (1970). An inexpensive method of programming stimuli using magnetic tape.  Psychophysiology 7:124-127.

Fitzgerald HE, Porges SW. (1971).  A decade of infant conditioning and learning research.  Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 17:79-117.Porges SW. (1972). Heart rate variability and deceleration as indexes of reaction time.  Journal of Experimental Psychology 92:103-110.

Porges SW, Arnold WR, Forbes EJ. (1973). Heart rate variability:  An index of attentional responsivity in human newborns.  Developmental Psychology 8:85-92.

Porges SW. (1973). Heart rate variability:  An autonomic correlate of reaction time performance.  Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 1:270-272.

Carter CS, Porges SW. (1974). Ovarian hormones and post-copulatory sexual receptivity in the female golden hamster.  Hormones and Behavior 5:303-315.

Porges SW, Stamps LE, Walter GF. (1974). Heart rate variability and newborn heart rate responses to illumination changes.  Developmental Psychology 10:507-513.

Porges SW. (1974).  Heart rate indices of newborn attentional responsivity.  Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 20:231-254.

Coles MGH, Porges SW, Duncan-Johnson CC. (1975).  Sex differences in performance and associated cardiac activity during a reaction time task.  Physiological Psychology 3:141-143.

Porges SW, Walter GF, Korb J, Sprague RL. (1975). The influence of methylphenidate on heart rate and behavioral measures of attention in hyperactive children.  Child Development 46:727-733.

Stamps LE, Porges SW. (1975).  Heart rate conditioning in newborn infants:  Relationships among conditionability, heart rate variability, and sex.  Developmental Psychology 11: 424-431.

Porges SW. (1976). Cohort effects and apparent secular trends in infant research.  In RF Riegel and JA Meacham, eds.  The Developing Individual in a Changing World Vol. II: Social and Environmental Issues.  Chicago: Aldine Press, 687-695.

Porges SW. (1976). Ontogenetic comparisons.  International Journal of Psychology 11:203-214.

Porges SW. (1976). Peripheral and petrochemicals parallels of psychopathology:  A psychophysiological model relating autonomic imbalance to hyperactivity, psychopathy, and autism.  In HW Reese, ed. Advances in Child Development and Behavior: Vol. 11.  New York: Academic Press, 35-65.

Reese HW, Porges SW. (1976). Development of learning process.  In V Hamilton and M Vernon, eds.  The Development of Cognitive Processes. London: Academic Press, 413-447.

Walter GF, Porges SW. (1976). Heart rate and respiratory responses as a function of task difficulty:  The use of discriminant analysis in the selection of psychologically sensitive physiological responses.  Psychophysiology 13:563-571.

Cheung MN, Porges SW. (1977).  Respiratory influences on cardiac responses during attention.  Physiological Psychology 5:53-57.

Porges SW, Humphrey MM. (1977).  Cardiac and respiratory responses during visual search in non-retarded children and retarded adolescents.  American Journal of Mental Deficiency 82:162-169.

Porges SW, Humphrey MM. (1977).  Heart rate and respiratory responses during visual search in normal and retarded children.  In P Mittler, ed. Research in Practice in Mental Retardation Vol. II:  Biomedical Aspects.  Baltimore: University Press, 429-435.

Graessle CA, Ahbel K, Porges SW. (1978).  Effects of mild prenatal decompressions on growth and behavior in the rat.  Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 12:329-331.

Menedez-Bauer C, Porges SW, Cheung MN, Chun AJ, Bohrer RE, Menedez A, Garcia-Ramos C, Arroyo J, Sammarriego-Crespo J. (1979).  Spectral analysis of fetal heart-rate for diagnosing fetal condition.  In O Thalhammer, K Baumgarten, and AA. Polleck, eds.  Perinatal Medicine.  Stuttgart, Germany: George Thieme, 265-270.

Porges SW. (1979).  Developmental designs for infancy research.  In JD Osofsky, ed.  Handbook of Infant Development.  New York: Wiley, 742-765.

Porges SW. (1979).  Spectral analysis of the fetal heart rate:  A potential method for the detection of fetal distress.  In TM Field, AM Sostek, S Goldberg, and HH. Shuman, eds.  Infants Born at Risk.  New York: Spectrum, 17-28.

Porges SW, Smith KM. (1980). Defining hyperactivity:  Physiological and behavioral strategies.  In CK Whalen and B Henker, eds. Hyperactive Children:  The Social Ecology of Identification and Treatment.  New York: Academic, 75-104.

Porges SW, Bohrer RE, Cheung MN, Drasgow F, McCabe PM, Keren G. (1980). New time-series statistic for detecting rhythmic co-occurrence in the frequency domain: The weighted coherence and its application to psychophysiological research.  Psychological Bulletin 88:580-587.

Porges, S.W. (1980).  Individual differences in attention: A possible physiological substrate.  In BK Keogh, ed.  Advances in Special Education:  Volume 2.  Greenwich, CN: JAI, 111-134.

Gawron VJ, Porges SW. (1981). Performance predicted from baseline autonomic functioning.  Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors Society, 79-92.

Jennings JR, Berg KW, Hutcheson JS, Obrist PA, Porges SW, Turpin G.  (1981).  Publication guidelines for heart rate studies in man.  Psychophysiology 3:226-231.

McCabe PM, Porges SW, Carter CS. (1981). Heart period variability during estrogen exposure and withdrawal in female rats.  Physiology and Behavior 26:535-538.

Porges SW, Bohrer RE, Keren G, Cheung MN, Franks GJ, Drasgow F. (1981).  The influence of methylphenidate on spontaneous autonomic activity and behavior in children diagnosed as hyperactive.  Psychophysiology 18:42-48.

Bohrer RE, Porges SW. (1982). The application of time-series statistics to psychological research:  An introduction.  In G Keren, ed.  Psychological Statistics. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 309-345.

Larson SK, Porges SW. (1982).  The ontogeny of heart period patterning in the rat.  Developmental Psychobiology 15:519-528.

Porges SW, Coles MGH. (1982). Individual differences in respiratory-heart period coupling and heart period responses during two attention-demanding tasks.  Physiological Psychology 10:215-220.

Porges SW, McCabe PM, Yongue BG. (1982).  Respiratory-heart rate interactions: Psychophysiological implications for pathophysiology and behavior.  In J Cacioppo and R Petty, eds. Perspectives in Cardiovascular Psychophysiology.  New York: Guilford, 223-264.

Yongue BG, McCabe PM, Porges SW, Rivera M, Kelley SL, Ackles PK.  (1982). The effects of pharmacological manipulations that influence vagal control of the heart on heart period, heart‑period variability, and respiration in rats.  Psychophysiology 19:426-432.

Porges SW, Ackles PK, Truax SR. (1983).  Psychophysiological measurement:  Methodological constraints.  In A Gale and J Edwards, eds. Physiological Correlates of Human Behavior.  London: Academic Press, 219-240.

Porges, S.W. (1983).  Heart rate patterns in neonates:  A potential diagnostic window to the brain.  In TM Field and AM Sostek, eds. Infants Born at Risk: Physiological and Perceptual Responses.  New York:  Gurney & Stratton, 3-22.

Donchin Y, Caton D, Porges SW. (1984).  Spectral analysis of fetal heart rate in sheep: The occurrence of respiratory sinus arrhythmia.  American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 148:1130-1135.

Greenspan SI, Porges SW. (1984).  Psychopathology in infancy and early childhood:  Clinical perspectives on the organization of sensory and affective-thematic experience.  Child Development 55:49-70.

McCabe PM, Yongue BG, Porges SW, Ackles PK. (1984).  Changes in heart period, heart period variability and a spectral analysis estimate of respiratory sinus arrhythmia during aortic nerve stimulation in rabbits.  Psychophysiology 21:149-158.

Porges SW. (1984). Heart rate oscillations:  An index of neural mediation.  In MGH Coles, R Jennings, and J Stern, eds.  Psychophysiological Perspectives:  Fetschrift for Beatrice and John Lacey.  New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 144-162.

Porges SW. (1984). Physiological correlates of attention:  Core process underlying learning disorders. Pediatric Clinics of North America:  Symposium on Learning Disorders 31:371-385.

Taylor HL, Dellinger JA, Weller MH, Richardson BC, Hyman FC, LeGrand JE, Domino EF, Porges SW. (1984).  Antiemetic drugs and pilot performance (Technical Report No. USAF SAM-TR-84-52).  Aviation Research Laboratory, Institute of Aviation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Savoy, IL, 61874.

Donchin Y, Feld JM, Porges SW. (1985). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during recovery from isoflurane-nitrous oxide anesthesia.  Anesthesia and Analgesia 64:811-815.

Fox NA, Porges SW. (1985).  The relationship between neonatal heart period patterns and developmental outcome.  Child Development 56:28-37.

McCabe PM, Yongue BG, Ackles PK, Porges SW. (1985).  Changes in heart period, heart-period variability, and a spectral analysis estimate of respiratory sinus arrhythmia in response to pharmacological manipulations of the baroreceptor reflex in cats.  Psychophysiology 22:195-203.

Porges SW, Drasgow F, Ullmann RK, Sleator EK, Sprague RL. (1985). Illinois classroom assessment profile:  Development of the instrument.  Multivariate Behavioral Research 20:141-159.

Porges SW. (1985).  Respiratory sinus arrhythmia:  An index of vagal tone.  In JF Orlebeke, G Mulder, and LJP Van Dornen, eds.  Psychophysiology of Cardiovascular Control: Models, Methods, and Data.  New York: Plenum, 437-450.

Porges SW. (1985).  Spontaneous oscillations in heart rate:  Potential index of stress. In PG Moberg, ed.  Animal Stress. Bethesda, MD:  The American Physiological Society, 97-111.

Porges SW. (1985). The Vagal tone monitor: Application in sleep research.  Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 868-869.

Taylor HL, Dellinger JA, Richardson BC, Weller MH, Porges SW, Wickens CD, LeGrand JE, Davis JM. (1985). The effects of atropine sulfate on aviator performance (Technical Report No. ARL TR-85-1).  Aviation Research Laboratory, Institute of Aviation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Savoy, IL, 61874.

Hatch JP, Klatt K, Porges SW, Schroeder-Jasheway L, Supik JD. (1986). The relation between rhythmic cardiovascular variability and reactivity to orthostatic, cognitive, and cold pressor stress. Psychophysiology 23:48-56.

Linnemeyer SA, Porges SW. (1986). Recognition memory and cardiac vagal tone in 6-month-old infants.  Infant Behavior and Development 9:43-56.

Porges SW, Fox NA. (1986). Developmental psychophysiology.  In MGH Coles, E Donchin, and SW Porges, eds.  Psychophysiology:  Systems, Processes, and Applications.  New York: Guilford, 611-625.

Porges SW. (1986). Data analysis in the frequency domain. In MGH.Coles, E Donchin, and SW Porges, eds.  Psychophysiology:  Systems, Processes, and Applications.  New York:  Guilford, 206-211.

Porges SW. (1986).  Respiratory sinus arrhythmia:  Physiological basis, quantitative methods, and clinical implications.  In P Grossman, K Janssen, and D Vaitl, eds.  Cardiorespiratory and Cardiosomatic Psychophysiology.  New York: Plenum, 101-115.

Dellinger JA, Taylor HL, Porges SW. (1987).  Atropine sulfate effects on aviator performance and on respiratory-heart period interactions.  Aviation Space Environment Medicine 58:333-338.

DiPietro JA, Larson SK, Porges SW. (1987).  Behavioral and heart-rate pattern differences between breast-fed and bottle-fed neonates.  Developmental Psychology 23:467-474.

Porges SW. (1987).  The measurement of cardiac vagal tone:  Physiological bases and clinical implications.  Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Conference of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 165-166.

Cottingham JT, Porges SW, Lyon T. (1988).  Effects of soft tissue mobilization (Rolfing pelvic lift) on parasympathetic tone in two age groups.  Physical Therapy 68:352-356.

Cottingham JT, Porges SW, Richmond K. (1988).  Shifts in pelvic inclination angle and parasympathetic tone produced by Rolfing soft tissue manipulation.  Physical Therapy 68:1364-1370.

Porges SW.  (1988). Neonatal vagal tone:  Diagnostic and prognostic implications.  In PN Vietze and HG Vaughn, eds. Early Identification of Infants With Developmental Disabilities.  Philadelphia:  Grune and Stratton, 147-159.

Porges SW. (1988).  Vagal tone as an index of mental state.  In JR Comstock, ed. NASA Conference Publication #2504: Workshop on Mental State Estimation, 57-64.

Porter FL, Porges SW, Marshall RE. (1988). Newborn pain cries and vagal tone:  Parallel changes in response to circumcision.  Child Development 59:495-505.

Zbulit JP, Murdock DK, Lawson L, Lawless CE, Von Dreele MM, Porges SW. (1988).  Use of power spectral analysis of RSA to detect graft rejection.  Journal of Heart Transplantation 7:280-288.

George DT, Nutt DJ, Walker WV, Porges SW, Adinoff B, Linnoila M.  (1989).  Lactate and hyperventilation substantially attenuate vagal tone in normal volunteers: A possible mechanism of panic provocation?  Archives of General Psychiatry 46:153-156.

Pfeifer, B.L., Sernaker, H.L., Ter Horst, U.M., & Porges, S.W. (1989).  Cross-tolerance between systemic and epidural morphine in cancer patients.  Pain 39:181-187.

Stifter CA, Fox NA, Porges SW. (1989).  Facial expressivity and vagal tone in five- and ten-month old infants.  Infant Behavior and Development 12:127-137.

Newlin DB, Byrne EA, Porges SW. (1990).  Vagal mediation of the effect of alcohol on heart rate.  Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 14:421-424.

Porges SW, Bohrer RE. (1990). Analyses of periodic processes in psychophysiological research.  In JT Cacioppo and LG Tassinary, eds. Principles of Psychophysiology:  Physical, Social, and Inferential Elements.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 708-753.

Degangi GA, DiPietro JA, Greenspan SI, Porges SW. (1991).  Psychophysiological characteristics of the regulatory disordered infant.  Infant Behavior and Development 14:37-50.

Degangi GA, Porges SW. (1991).  Attention, alertness, and arousal.  In CB Royeen, ed. Neuroscience Foundations of Human Performance.  The American Occupational Therapy Association.

DiPietro JA, Porges SW. (1991).  Relations between neonatal states and 8-month developmental outcome in preterm infants.  Infant Behavior and Development 14:441, 450.

DiPietro JA, Porges SW. (1991).  Vagal responsiveness to gavage feeding as an index of preterm stress.  Pediatric Research 29:231-236.

Izard CE, Porges SW, Simons RF, Parisi M, Haynes OM, Cohen B. (1991).  Infant cardiac activity: Developmental changes and relations with attachment.  Developmental Psychology 27:432-439.

Porges SW, Greenspan SI. (1991). Regulatory disordered infants: A common theme.  In National Institutes of Drug Abuse workshop report on Methodological Issues in Controlled Studies on Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Drugs of Abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph, 114:173-181.

Porges SW. (1991).  Vagal mediation of respiratory sinus arrhythmia:  Implications for drug delivery.  In JM Hrushesky, R Langer and F Theeuwes, eds.  Temporal Control of Drug Delivery.  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 618:57-66.

Porges SW. (1991).  Vagal tone:  An autonomic mediator of affect.  In JA Garber and KA Dodge, eds.  The Development of Affect Regulation and Dysregulation.  New York: Cambridge University Press, 111-128.

Byrne EA, Porges SW.  (1992).  Frequency-specific amplification of heart rate rhythms using oscillatory tilt.  Psychophysiology 29:120-126.

DiPietro JA, Porges SW, Uhly B. (1992).  Reactivity and developmental competence in preterm and full-term infants.  Developmental Psychology 28:831-841.

Donchin Y, Constantini S, Szold A, Byrne EA, Porges SW.  (1992). Cardiac vagal tone predicts outcome in neurosurgical patients.  Critical Care Medicine 20:941-949.

McLeod DR, Hoehn-Saric R, Porges SW, Zimmerli WD. (1992).  Effects of alprazolam and imipramine on parasympathetic cardiac control in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.  Psychopharmacology 107:535-540.

Porges SW, Byrne EA. (1992).  Research methods for measurement of heart rate and respiration.  Biological Psychology 34:93-130.

Porges SW, Matthews KA, Pauls DL.  (1992). The biobehavioral interface in behavioral pediatrics.  Pediatrics  90:789-797.

Porges SW. (1992).  Autonomic regulation and attention.  In BA Campbell, H Hayne, and R Richardson, eds. Attention and information processing in infants and adults.  Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 201-223.

Porges SW. (1992).  Vagal Tone: A physiological marker of stress vulnerability.  Pediatrics 90:498-504.

Byrne EA, Porges SW. (1993).  Data-dependent filter characteristics of peak-valley respiratory sinus arrhythmia estimation: A cautionary note.  Psychophysiology 30:397-404.

Harris RM, Porges SW, Carpenter ME, Vincenz LM. (1993). Hypnotic susceptibility, mood state, and cardiovascular reactivity.  American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 36:15-25.

Porges SW, Lipsitt LP. (1993). Neonatal responsivity to gustatory stimulation: The gustatory-vagal hypothesis.  Infant Behavior and Development 16:487-494.

Porges SW. (1993).  The infant's sixth sense: Awareness and regulation of bodily processes.  Zero to Three: Bulletin of the National Center for Clinical Infant Programs 14:12-16.

Byrne EA, Porges SW. (1994).  Heart rate variability, effort, and complex monitoring: Implications for research on automation.  In M Mouloua and R Parasuraman, eds. Human Performance in Automatic Systems: Current Research and Trends.  Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 169-174.

DeGangi GA, Porges SW, Sickel RZ, Greenspan SI. (1994).  Four-year follow-up of a sample of regulatory disordered infants.  Infant Mental Health Journal 14:330-343.

Fracasso MP, Porges SW, Lamb ME, Rosenberg AA. (1994). Cardiac activity in infancy: Reliability and stability of individual differences. Infant Behavior and Development 177:277-284.

Porges SW, Donchin Y. (1994).  Vagal tone and neurosurgical patients.  Critical Care Medicine 22:180-181.

Porges SW, Doussard-Roosevelt JA, Portales AL, Suess PE.  (1994). Cardiac vagal tone: Stability and relation to difficultness in infants and three-year-old children.  Developmental Psychobiology 27:289-300.

Porges SW, Doussard-Roosevelt JA, Maiti AK.  (1994).. Vagal tone and the physiological regulation of emotion.  In NA Fox, ed. Emotion Regulation: Behavioral and Biological Considerations.  Monograph of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59 (2-3, Serial No. 240), 167-186.

Porges SW. (1994).  For distinguished contributions to psychophysiology: John Stern.  Psychophysiology 31:217-222.

Porges SW (1994).  Le tonus vagal: indicateur du stress et de la vulnerabilite au stress chez l'enfant.  Medecine & Enfance 14:494-503.

Suess PE, Porges SW, Plude DJ. (1994). Cardiac vagal tone and sustained attention in school age children.  Psychophysiology 31:17-22.

Fox NA, Rubin KH, Calkins SD, Marshall TR, Coplan RJ, Porges SW, Long J.  (1995). Frontal activation asymmetry and social competence at four years of age: Left frontal hyper- and hypo-activation as correlates of social behavior in preschool children.  Child Development 66:1770-1784.

Hickey JE, Suess PW, Newlin DB, Spurgeon L, Porges SW.  (1995). Vagal tone regulation during sustained attention in boys exposed to opiates in utero.  Addictive Behaviors 2:43-59.

Hofheimer JA, Wood BR, Porges SW, Pearson E, Lawson EE. (1995). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and social interaction patterns in preterm newborns.  Infant Behavior and Development 18:233-246.

Porges SW. (1995).  Cardiac vagal tone: A physiological index of stress.  Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 19:225-233.

Porges SW.  (1995).  Orienting in a defensive world: Mammalian modifications of our evolutionary heritage.  A Polyvagal Theory.  Psychophysiology 32:301-318.

Byrne EA, Fleg JL, Vaitkevicius PV, Wright J, Porges SW.  (1996). Role of aerobic capacity and body mass index in the age-associated decline in heart rate variability.  Journal of Applied Physiology 81:743-750.

Doussard-Roosevelt JA, Porges SW, McClenny BD.  (1996).  Behavioral sleep states in very low birth weight preterm neonates: Relation to neonatal health and vagal maturation.  The Journal of Pediatric Psychology 21:785-802.

Lehrer PM, Hochron S, Carr R, Edelberg R, Hammer R, Jackson A, Porges SW.  (1996). Behavioral task-induced bronchodilation in asthma during active and passive tasks: Possible cholinergic link to psychologically-induced airway changes.  Psychosomatic Medicine 58:413-422.

Porges SW, Doussard-Roosevelt JA, Portales AL, Greenspan SI.  (1996). Infant regulation of the vagal "brake" predicts child behavior problems: A psychobiological model of social behavior.  Developmental Psychobiology 29:697-712.

Porges SW. (1996).  Physiological regulation in high-risk infants: A model for assessment and potential intervention.  Development and Psychopathology 8:43-58.

Sargunaraj D, Lehrer PM, Hochron SM, Rausch L, Edelberg R, Porges SW. (1996).  Cardiac rhythm effects of .125 Hz paced breathing through a resistive load: Implications for paced breathing therapy and the Polyvagal Theory.  Biofeedback and Self-Regulation 21:131-147.

Bazhenova OV, Porges SW.  (1997).  Vagal reactivity and affective adjustment in infants: Convergent response system.  In CS Carter, B Kirkpatrick, and II Lederhendler, eds. The Integrative Neurobiology of Affiliation, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 807:469-471.

Berntson GG, Bigger JT, Cacioppo JT, Eckberg DL, Grossman P, Kaufmann PG, Malik M, Nagaraja HN, Porges SW, Saul JP, Stone PH, van der Molen MW. (1997). Heart rate variability: Origins, methods, and interpretive caveats.  Psychophysiology 34:623-648.

Doussard-Roosevelt JA, Porges SW, Scanlon JW, Alemi B, Scanlon KB. (1997). Vagal regulation of heart rate in the prediction of developmental outcome for very low birth weight preterm infants.  Child Development 68:173-186.

Lehrer PM, Carr RE, Smetankine A, Vaschillo E, Peper E, Porges SW. (1997).  Respiratory sinus arrhythmia versus neck/trapezius EMG and incentive inspirometry biofeedback for asthma: A pilot study.  Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 22:95-109.

Porges SW, Doussard-Roosevelt JA.  (1997).  Early physiological response patterns and later psychological development.  In HW Reese and MD Franzen, eds.  Life-Span Developmental Psychology: Biological and Neuropsychological Mechanisms.  Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 163-179.

Porges SW, Doussard-Roosevelt JA. (1997).  The psychophysiology of temperament.  In JD Noshpitz, ed.  The Handbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.  New York: Wiley Press, 250-268.

Porges SW.  (1997). Emotion: An evolutionary by-product of the neural regulation of the autonomic nervous system.  In CS Carter, B Kirkpatrick, and II Lederhendler, eds.  The Integrative Neurobiology of Affiliation, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 807:62-77.  Reprinted in CS Carter, II Lederhendler, B Kirkpatrick, J Cassell, eds. The Integrative Neurobiology of Affiliation, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 65-80.

Portales AL, Porges SW, Abedin M, Lopez R, Young MA, Beeram MR, Baker M. (1997).  Vagal regulation during bottle feeding in low-birthweight neonates:  Support for the gustatory-vagal hypothesis.  Developmental Psychobiology 30:225-233.

Riniolo TC, Bazhenova OV, Porges SW. (1997). Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia and Ambient Temperature at 5-Months.  Infant Behavior and Development 20:417-420.

Riniolo TC, Porges SW.  (1997). Inferential and descriptive influences on measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia: Sampling rate, R-wave trigger accuracy, and variance estimates.  Psychophysiology 34:613-621.

Suess PE, Newlin DB, Porges SW.  (1997).  Motivation, sustained attention, and autonomic regulation in school-age boys exposed in utero to opiates and alcohol.  Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 5:375-387.

Apparies RJ, Riniolo TC, Porges SW.  (1998). A psychophysiological investigation of the effects of driving longer-combination vehicles.  Ergonomics 41:581-592.

Hatfield BD, Santa Maria DL, Porges SW, Potts JT, Spalding T, Byrne EA.  (1998).  Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during exercise in aerobically trained and untrained men.  Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 30:206-214.

Huffman LC, Bryan,Y, del Carmen R, Pedersen FA, Doussard-Roosevelt JA, Porges SW. (1998). Infant temperament and cardiac vagal tone: Assessments at 12 weeks of age.  Child Development  69:624-635.

Porges SW. (1998).  Love: An emergent property of the mammalian autonomic nervous system.  Psychoneuroendocrinology 23:837-861.

Doussard-Roosevelt JA, Porges SW. (1999).  The Role of neurobehavioral organization in stress responses: A polyvagal model.  In M Lewis and D Ramsay, ed.  Stress and Coping.  Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 57-76.

Porges SW, Doussard-Roosevelt JA, Stifter CA, McClenny BD, Riniolo TC. (1999). Sleep state and vagal regulation of heart period patterns in the human newborn: An extension of the Polyvagal Theory.  Psychophysiology 36:14-21.

Reed SF, Ohel G, David R, Porges SW. (1999). A neural explanation of fetal heart rate patterns: A test of the Polyvagal Theory.  Developmental Psychobiology 35:108-118.

Reed SF, Porges SW, Newlin DB. (1999). Effects of alcohol on vagal regulation of cardiovascular function: Contributions of the polyvagal theory to the psychophysiology of alcohol.  Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 7:484-492.

Degangi GA, Breinbauer C, Doussard Roosevelt J, Porges S, Greenspan S. (2000). Prediction of childhood problems at three years in children experiencing disorders of regulation during infancy.  Infant Mental Health Journal 21:156-175.

McLeod DR, Hoehn-Saric R, Porges SW, Kowalski PA, Clark CM. (2000). Therapeutic effects of imipramine are counteracted by its metabolite, desipramine, in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 20:615-21.

Riniolo TC, Porges SW. (2000).  Evaluating group distributional characteristics: Why psychophysiologists should be interested in qualitative departures from the normal distribution.  Psychophysiology 37:21-28.

Spalding TW, Jeffers LS, Porges SW, Hatfield BD. (2000). Vagal and cardiac reactivity to psychological stressors in trained and untrained men. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 32:581-591.

Suess PE, Alpan G, Dulkerian SJ, Doussard-Roosevelt JA, Porges SW, Gewolb IH. (2000). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during feeding: A measure of vagal regulation of metabolism, ingestion, and digestion in preterm infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 42:169-173.

Doussard-Roosevelt JA, McClenny BD, Porges SW.  (2001). Neonatal cardiac vagal tone and school-age developmental outcome in very low birth weight infants. Developmental Psychobiology 38:56-66.

Sahar T, Shalev AY, Porges SW. (2001).  Vagal modulation of responses to mental challenge in post-traumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry 49:637-643.

Bazhenova OV, Plonskaia O, Porges SW.  (2001). Vagal reactivity and affective adjustment in infants during interaction challenges.  Child Development 72:1314-1326.

Altemus M, Redwine LS, Leong YM, Porges SW, Carter CS. (2001).  Responses to laboratory psychosocial stress in postpartum women.  Psychosomatic Medicine 63:814-821.

Porges SW.  (2001). Is there a major stress system at the periphery other than the adrenals? In DM Broom, ed. Report of the 87th Dahlem Workshop on Coping with Challenge: Welfare in Animals including Humans.  Berlin, Germany:  Dahlem University Press, 135-149.

Porges SW. (2001). The Polyvagal Theory: Phylogenetic substrates of a social nervous system. International Journal of Psychophysiology 42:123-146.

Umhau JC, George DT, Reed S, Petrulis SG, Rawlings R, Porges SW. (2002). Atypical autonomic regulation in perpetrators of violent domestic abuse.  Psychophysiology 39:117-123.

Porges SW, Riniolo TC, McBride T, Campbell B. (2003). Heart rate and respiration in reptiles: Contrasts between a sit and wait predator and an intensive forager. Brain and Cognition 52:88-96.

Doussard-Roosevelt JA, Joe CM, Bazhenova OV, Porges SW. (2003). Mother-child interaction in autistic and nonautistic children: Characteristics of maternal approach behaviors and child social responses. Development and Psychopathology 15:277-295.

Doussard-Roosevelt JA, Montgomery LA, Porges SW. (2003).  Short-term stability of physiological measures in kindergarten children: Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, heart period, and cortisol.  Developmental Psychobiology 43:230-242.

Porges SW.  (2003). The Polyvagal Theory: Phylogenetic contributions to social behavior.  Physiology and Behavior 79:503-513.

Porges SW.  (2003). Social engagement and attachment: A phylogenetic perspective.  Roots of Mental Illness in Children, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1008:31-47.

Porges SW.  (2004). Neuroception: A subconscious system for detecting threat and safety.  Zero to Three: Bulletin of the National Center for Clinical Infant Programs 24:5,9-24.

Carter CS, Ahnert L, Grossman KE, Hrdy SB, Lamb ME, Porges SW, Sachser N. (2005). Introduction. In CS Carter, Ahnert L, Grossmann K, Hrdy SB, Lamb ME, Porges SW, Sachser N, eds.  Attachment and Bonding: A New Synthesis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 1-8.

Porges SW.  (2005). The vagus: A mediator of behavioral and visceral features associated with autism.  In ML Bauman and TL Kemper, eds. The Neurobiology of Autism.  Baltimore:  Johns Hopkins University Press, 65-78.

Porges SW.  (2005). The role of social engagement in attachment and bonding: A phylogenetic perspective.   In CS Carter, Ahnert L, Grossmann K, Hrdy SB, Lamb ME, Porges SW, Sachser N, eds.  Attachment and Bonding: A New Synthesis.  Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 33-54.

Carter CS, Bales KL, Porges SW.  (2005). Neuropeptides influence expression of and capacity to form social bonds.  Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28:353-354.

Porges SW.  (2006). Asserting the role of biobehavioral sciences in translational research: The behavioral neurobiology revolution.  Developmental Psychopathology 18:923-933.

Porges SW.  (2007). The polyvagal perspective. Biological Psychology 74:116-143.

Porges SW.  (2007). A phylogenetic journey through the vague and ambiguous Xth cranial nerve: A commentary on contemporary heart rate variability research.  Biological Psychology 74:301-307.

Denver JW, Reed SF, Porges SW.  (2007). Methodological issues in the quantification of respiratory sinus arrhythmia.  Biological Psychology 74:286-294.

Bazhenova OV, Stroganova TA, Doussard-Roosevelt JA, Posikera LA, Porges SW.  (2007)  Physiological responses of 5-month-old infants to smiling and blank faces.  International Journal of Psychophysiology 63:64-76.

Heilman KJ, Porges SW.  (2007). Accuracy of the LifeShirt (Vivometrics) in the detection of cardiac rhythms.  Biological Psychology 75:300-305.

Heilman KJ, Bal E, Bazhenova OV, Porges SW. (2007). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and tympanic membrane compliance predict spontaneous eye gaze behaviors in young children: A pilot study. Developmental Psychobiology 49:531-542.

Porges SW, Heilman KJ, Bazhenova OV, Bal E, Doussard-Roosevelt JA, Koledin M. (2007). Does motor activity during psychophysiological paradigms confound the quantification and interpretation of heart rate and heart rate variability measures in young children?  Developmental Psychobiology 49:485-494.

Austin MA, Riniolo TC, Porges SW. (2007). Borderline personality disorder and emotion regulation: Insights from the Polyvagal Theory.  Brain and Cognition 65:69-76.

Grippo AJ, Lamb DG, Carter CS, Porges SW. (2007).  Cardiac regulation in the socially monogamous prairie vole. Physiology & Behavior 90:386-393.

Grippo AJ, Lamb DG, Carter CS, Porges SW. (2007).  Social isolation disrupts autonomic regulation of the heart and influences negative affective behaviors.  Biological Psychiatry 62:1162-1170.

Heilman KJ, Bal E, Bazhenova OV, Sorokin Y, Perlman SB, Hanley MC, Porges SW. (2008). Physiological responses to social and physical challenges in children: Quantifying mechanisms supporting social engagement and mobilization behaviors.  Developmental Psychobiology 50:171-182.

Berry-Kravis E, Sumis A, Hervey C, Nelson M, Porges SW, Weng N, Weiler IJ, Greenough WT.  (2008). Open-label treatment trial of Lithium to target the underlying defect in Fragile X Syndrome.  Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 29:293-302.

Heilman KJ, Handelman M, Lewis G, Porges SW. (2008). Accuracy of the StressEraser in the detection of cardiac rhythms.  Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 33:83-89.

Carter CS, Grippo AJ, Pournajafi-Nazarloo H, Ruscio MG, Porges SW. (2008). Oxytocin, vasopressin and sociality. Progress in Brain Research, 170: 331-336.

Porges SW. (2008).  Music therapy and trauma: Insights from the polyvagal theory.  In K Stewart, ed.  Symposium on Music Therapy & Trauma: Bridging Theory and Clinical Practice.  New York: Satchnote Press.

Porges SW. (2009).  The polyvagal theory: New insights into adaptive reactions of the autonomic nervous system. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 76:S86-90.

Porges SW. (2009).  Stress and Parasympathetic Control.  In LR Squire, ed.  Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, Vol. 9, Oxford: Academic Press, 463-469.

Carter CS, Harris J, Porges SW. (2009). Neural and evolutionary perspectives on empathy.  In J Decety, W J Ickes, ed.  Social Neuroscience of Empathy. MIT Press: Cambridge, 169-182.

Grippo AJ, Trahanas DM, Zimmerman II RR, Porges SW, Carter CS. (2009). Oxytocin protects against isolation-induced autonomic dysfunction and behavioral indices of depression. Psychoneuroendocrinology 34:1542-1553.

Borer KT, Wuorinen E, Lukos JR, Denver J, Porges SW. (2009). Two bouts of exercise before meals, but not after meals, lower fasting blood glucose.  Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 41:1606-1614.

Van Hecke AV, Lebow J, Bal E, Lamb D, Harden E, Kramer A, Denver J, Bazhenova O, Porges SW.  (2009). Electroencephalogram and heart rate regulation to familiar and unfamiliar people in children with autism spectrum disorders.  Child Development, 80:1118-1133.

Dale LP, Carroll LE, Galen G, Hayes JA, Webb KW, Porges SW. (2009). Abuse history is related to autonomic regulation to mild exercise and psychological wellbeing. Applied Psychophysiology  and Biofeedback 34:299-308.

Porges SW. (2009). Reciprocal influences between body and brain in the perception and expression of affect: A polyvagal perspective. In D Fosha, D Siegel, and M Solomon, eds. The Healing Power of Emotion: Affective Neuroscience, Development, and Clinical Practice. New York: Norton, 27-54.

Porges SW, Lewis GF. (2009).  The polyvagal hypothesis: Common mechanisms mediating autonomic regulation, vocalizations, and listening.  In SM Brudzynski, ed. Handbook of Mammalian Vocalizations: An Integrative Neuroscience Approach.  Amsterdam: Academic Press, 255-264.

Bal E, Harden E, Lamb D, Vaughan-Van Hecke A, Denver JW, Porges SW. (2010) Emotion recognition in children with autism spectrum disorders: Relations to eye gaze and autonomic state.  Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 40:358-370.

Williamson JB, Lewis G, Grippo AJ, Lamb D, Harden E, Handleman M, Lebow J, Carter CS, Porges SW. (2010). Autonomic predictors of recovery following surgery: a comparative study. Autonomic Neuroscience, 156:60-6.

Carter CS, Porges SW. (2010). Social bonding and attachment. In G Koob and E. Adkins-Regan, eds. The Encyclopedia of Behavioral Neuroscience. New York: Elsevier.

Porges SW, Carter CS. (2010). Neurobiological bases of social behavior across the lifespan.  In ME Lamb and AM Freund, eds.  Handbook of Life Span Development.  New York: Wiley.

Lewis GF, Gatto RG, Porges SW (2011). A novel method for extracting respiration rate and relative tidal volume from infrared thermography. Psychophysiology 48, 877-887.

Porges SW, Furman SA. (2011). The early development of the autonomic nervous system provides a neural platform for social behavior: A polyvagal perspective. Infant and Child Development 20:106-118.

Porges SW, Carter CS. (2011). Neurobiology and evolution: Mechanisms, mediators, and adaptive consequences of caregiving. In SL Brown, RM Brown, and LA Penner, eds. Self Interest and Beyond: Toward a New Understanding of Human Caregiving. New York: Oxford University Press, 53-71.

Heilman KJ, Harden E., Zageris D, Berry-Kravis E, Porges SW (2011). Autonomic regulation in Fragile X Syndrome. Developmental Psychobiology 53:785-795..

Dale LP, O’Hara EA, Schein R, Porges SW. (2011). Nine-month RSA regulation and regulatory disorders predict 54-month behavior problems. Infant Mental Health Journal 32:473-486.

Carter CS, Porges SW. (2011). The neurobiology of social bonding and attachment. In J Decety and J Cacioppo, eds, The Oxford Handbook of Social Neuroscience, 152-163.

Grippo AJ, Pournajafi-Nazarloo H, Sanzenbacher L, Trahanas DM, McNeal N, Clarke DA, Porges SW, Carter CS. (2012). Peripheral oxytocin administration buffers autonomic but not behavioral responses to environmental stressors in isolated prairie vole. Stress, 15(2): 149-61.

Heilman KJ, Connolly SD, Padilla WO, Wrzosek MI, Graczyk PA, Porges SW (2012). Sluggish vagal brake reactivity to physical challenge in children with selective mutism. Development and Psychopathology, 24: 241-250.

Lewis GF, Furman SA, McCool MF, Porges SW. (2012). Statistical strategies to quantify respiratory sinus arrhythmia: Are commonly used metrics equivalent? Biological Psychology 89:349-364.

Carter CS, Porges SW. (2012). Mechanisms, mediators, and adaptive consequences of caregiving. In: D Narvaez, J Panksepp, AL Schore, & TR Gleason, eds. Human Nature, Early Experience and the Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness. New York: Oxford University Press, 132-151.

Gray L, Lang CW, Porges SW.  (2012).  Warmth is analgesic in healthy newborns.  Pain, 153:960-966.

Williamson JB, Lewis GF, Nyenhuis DL, Stebbins GT, Murphy C, Handelman M, Harden E, Heilman KM, Gorelick PB, Porges SW. (2012). The effects of cerebral white matter changes on cardiovascular responses to cognitive and physical activity in a stroke population. Psychophysiology 49:1618-1628

Porges SW, Macellaio M, Stanfill SD, McCue K, Lewis GF, Harden ER, Handelman M, Denver J, Bazhenova OV, Heilman KJ. (2013). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and auditory processing in autism: Modifiable deficits of an integrated social engagement system? International Journal of Psychophysiology 88: 261-270.

Domes G, Steiner A, Porges SW, Heinrichs M. (2013). Oxytocin differentially modulates eye gaze to naturalistic social signals of happiness and anger. Psychoneuroendocrinology 38: 1198-1202.

Patriquin MA, Scarpa A, Friedman BH, Porges SW. (2013).  Respiratory sinus arrhythmia: A marker for positive social functioning and receptive language skills in children with autism spectrum disorders.  Developmental Psychobiology 55: 101-112.

Gorka SM, Nelson BD, Sarapas C, Campbell ML, Lewis GF, Bishop JR, Porges SW, Shankman SA. (2013). Relation between respiratory sinus arrhythmia and startle response during predictable and unpredictable threat. Journal of Psychophysiology 27: 95-104.

Heilman KJ, Harden ER, Weber KM, Cohen M, Porges SW. (2013).  Atypical autonomic regulation, auditory processing, and affect recognition in women with HIV. Biological Psychology 94:143-151.

Williamson JB, Heilman KM, Porges EC, Lamb DG, Porges SW (2013).  Possible mechanism for PTSD symptoms in patients with traumatic brain injury: central autonomic network disruption.  Frontiers in Neuroengineering. doi: 10.3389/fneng

Carter CS, Porges SW. (2013). The biochemistry of love: an oxytocin hypothesis. EMBO Reports 14(1), 12-6.

Kenkel WM., Paredes J, Lewis GF, Yee JR, Pournajafi-Nazarloo H, Grippo AJ, Porges SW, & Carter CS (2013).  Autonomic substrates of the response to pups in male prairie voles. PlosOne Aug 5; 8(8):e69965. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069965.

Stewart AM, Lewis GF, Heilman KJ, Davila MI, Coleman DD, Aylward SA, Porges SW. (2013). The covariation of acoustic features of infant cries and autonomic state.  Physiology and Behavior 120: 203-10.

Porges SW. (2013).  A psychophysiology of developmental disabilities: a personal and historical perspective, American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 118:416-418.